Reni Heryanti, Muhammad Hadi Sucipto, Makmur Makmur


The purpose of this quantitative research is to reveal common grammatical errors in writing narrative essay of English Study Program students at Jambi University. The data were collected through writing test. The data were analyzed by using format error identification. This research reveals twelve errors. They were verb-tense, punctuation, capital letters, word choice, spelling, preposition, pronoun, pluralism, redundancy, word order, article, and possessive case. There were 599 errors happened in students’ papers, and the highest amount of error occurred in verb-tense category. There were 303 verb-tense errors (50.58%). Meanwhile, the smallest number of error occurred in article and possessive case category. Both have the same frequency and percentage, which are 6 errors (1.00%) in article and 6 errors (1.00%) in possessive case. The researcher concluded that students made errors because of the lack of grammatical knowledge. Their native language also still influenced the students, which is Bahasa that lead them to made errors.


grammatical errors, narrative essay

Full Text:



Allan G. B. (2004). Elementary statistics: A step by step approach, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bello, T. (1997). Writing topic for adult ESL students. Paper presented at the 31st Annual Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Language Convention, Orlando, FI, USA.

Blanchard & Root (2003). Ready to Write. White Plains: Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Pearson Education Inc.

Byrne, D. (1979). Teaching writing skill. Longman Publisher

Corder, S. P. (1974). Error analysis: Perspectives on second language acquisition. London: Longman

Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Dulay, H., Burt, M., & Krashen, S. (1982). Language two. Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (1997). Studies in second language acquisition. Multilingual Matters.

Farooq, S. A. (2012). Opinion of second language learners about writing difficulties in English language. Lahore: University of Punjab.

Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gay, L., Mills. G., & Airasian, P. (2006). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (8th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

George, E., & Julia M. B. (1980). Let’s write English. New York: Lifon Educational Publishing Inc.

Guth, H.P. (1969). Words and ideas. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Harmer, J. (1998). How to Teach English. Edinburgh: Addison Wesley

Harris, D.P. (1969). Testing English as a second language. New York: Mc.Graw-Hill.Inc.

Heady, E. (2007). Introduction to graduate writing. Lynchburg: Liberty University Graduate Writing Center.

Ismail, S. A. A. (2011). Exploring students’ perceptions of ESL writing. English Language Teaching, 4(2), 73-83.

Kho, M.G.W., & Muhammad, Y.Y. (2013). Writing difficulties faced by postgraduate TESOL students. Malaysia: Proceedings of the USM-PPIP TESOL Colloquium.

Khuwailleh, A. A & Shoumalli, A. A (2000). Writing errors: a study of the writing ability of arab learners of academic english and arabic at university, language culture and curriculum. Jordan University of Science and Technology.

Kizlik, B. (2012). Measurements, assessments, and evaluation in education. Retrieved from

Krishnan, Lakshmi, Valli R., & Chanock, K. (2007). Essay writing visual guide. Sydney: Association for Academic Language & Learning (AALL).

Gerot, L., & Peter, W. (1994). Making sense of functional grammar. Sidney: Gerd Stabler.

McNamara, D.S., Crossley, S.A., & McCarthy, P.M. (2010). Linguistic features of writing quality. Written Communication, 27, 57-86.

Meyers, A. (2005). Write with confidences: Writing effective sentence and paragraph. London: Longman Pub Group.

Oshima, A., & Hogue. A. (1997). Writing academic English (2nd ed.). New York: Longman Pub Group.

Oshima, A., & Hogue. A. (1998). Writing academic English (3rd ed.). New York: Longman Pub Group.

Randal, H. (2004). Literacy an introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University.

Richard, J.C (1974). Error analysis: Perspectives on second language acquisition. London: Longman

Richard, J. C. and Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

S. Gass & L. Selinker (2008). Second language acquisition: An introductory course (3rd Ed.). New York: Routledge/Taylor Francis.

Schaefer, M., Machguth, H., Falvey, M., and Casassa, G. (1996). Modeling past and future surface mass balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth.

Temple, C. Nathan, R., Burris, N. & Temple, F. (1998). The beginning of writing. Massachusetts: Allyan and Bacon, Inc.

Veit, R. (1986). Discovering English grammar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

White, Fred D. 1986. The writer’s art. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Office:
State Islamic University of Raden Fatah Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.
Prof.K.H. Zainal Abidin Fikri Street Number 1, Palembang, South Sumatra

Creative Commons Licence

Edukasi by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.