The Muamalah Editorial Board acknowledges that plagiarism is unacceptable and therefore establishes the following policy which states specific actions (penalties) when plagiarism is identified in articles submitted for publication on Muamalah.



Plagiarism involves "the use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of other authors and the representation of them as one's own original work."



Papers must be original, unpublished, and not awaiting publication elsewhere. Any material taken verbatim from other sources needs to be clearly identified as distinct from the original text by (1) indentation, (2) use of quotation marks, and (3) assisting sources.


Any text of an amount that exceeds fair use standards (defined here as more than two or three sentences or the equivalent) or any graphic material reproduced from other sources requires permission from the copyright holder and, where applicable, the original author. and also need help from sources; for example, previous publications.


When plagiarism is identified, the Editor-in-Chief is responsible for reviewing this paper and will agree on steps according to the level of plagiarism detected in the paper according to the following guidelines:


Plagiarism Rate


Short passages from other articles are plagiarized without any significant data or ideas taken from other papers



A warning is given to the author and a request to amend the text and properly cite the original article


Medium: Majority of papers are plagiarized without proper citations to the original papers


Action: The submitted article is rejected and the author is prohibited from submitting further articles for one year

Severe: Most plagiarized papers involve reproducing original results or ideas presented in other publications


Action: Papers are rejected and authors are prohibited from submitting further articles for five years.


It is understood that all authors are responsible for the content of their submitted papers as they all read and understand the Copyright and Muamalah License Terms. If a penalty is imposed for plagiarism, all authors will be subject to the same penalty.


If a second case of plagiarism by the same author is identified, a decision on the steps to be taken will be made by the Editorial Board (Chief Editor, and members of the Editor) with the Chief Editor in Chief. Author(s) may be banned from submitting further articles forever.


This policy also applies to material reproduced from other publications by the same author(s). If an author uses previously published text or graphics, the appropriate paragraph or figure should be identified and the previous publication referenced. It is understood that in the case of review papers or tutorial papers, much of the material is previously published.

Authors must identify the source of previously published material and obtain permission from the original author and publisher. If an author submits a manuscript to Muamalah with significant overlap with a manuscript submitted to another journal concurrently, and this overlap is discovered during the review process or after the publication of both papers, the editor of the other journal is notified and the case is treated as a case of severe plagiarism. Significant overlap means the use of identical or nearly identical graphics and identical or slightly modified text on half or more of the paper. For self-plagiarism less than half of papers but more than one tenth of papers, the case will be treated as intermediate plagiarism. If self-plagiarism is limited to the method section, that case will be considered as minor plagiarism.


If an author uses some previously published material to clarify the presentation of new results, the previously published material should be identified and its differences from current publications should be noted. Permission to republish must be obtained from the copyright holder. In the case of a manuscript originally published in conference proceedings and then submitted for publication in Muamalah either in identical or expanded form, the author must identify the name of the conference proceedings and the date of publication and obtain permission to republish from the copyright holder. The editor may decide not to accept this paper for publication.

However, an author may use material from unpublished presentations, including visuals, in subsequent journal publications. In the case of a proposed publication that was originally published in another language, the title, date, and journal of the original publication must be identified by the author, and copyright must be obtained. Editors may accept the publication of such translations to appeal to a wider audience. Editors can select certain published papers (eg “historic” papers) to be republished to provide a better perspective of a series of papers published in a single issue of Muamalah. This republication must be clearly identified and the date and journal of original publication must be given, and permission from the author and publisher must be obtained.


The Muamalah layout editor for Journals is responsible for maintaining the list of penalized authors and will check that there are no authors of submitted papers in this list. If a banned author is identified, the layout editor will notify the Chief Editor who will take appropriate action. This policy will be posted on the website with instructions for submitting the manuscript, and a copy will be sent to the author with a confirmation email upon initial receipt of their original manuscript.