Response of Muslims in Indonesia, particularly the Council of Indonesian Ulama (Majelis Ulama Indonesia) as well as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, to the social discrimination against Muslim communities in France

Authors

  • Anne Mardiah Padjdjaran University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19109/ampera.v4i01.15729

Keywords:

Diskriminasi Sosial, Islamofobia, MUI, Prancis

Abstract

A report by a global human rights organization, found that violations against Muslim groups in France were widespread and all the acts committed were based on the name of state security. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was prepared by representatives of countries with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world which was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948 in Paris, France. This declaration then signifies that fundamental human rights must be universally protected. In this research, researchers aim to find out what social discrimination has occurred against Muslim groups in France, and researchers also want to know what are the reactions of Muslims in Indonesia in general and their responses, especially Council of Indonesian Ulama (MUI) and Nahdhatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah as representatives of Muslims in Indonesia against social discrimination against Muslim groups in France by using a qualitative approach method whose data collection techniques are through internet-based research, literature studies, and interviews. In their research results, researchers found that Indonesian society in general, especially MUI, NU, and Muhammadiyah continue to guard against Islamophobia in France and France as the country where the rules regarding international human rights were declared still have a high rate of discrimination, especially against Muslim minority groups.

References

UK,Germany, Netherlands, and Sweden. UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law, 16(1), 31-60. doi:10.5070/N4161038735

Adida, C. L., Laitin, D. D., & Valfort, M.-A. (2016). “One Muslim is Enough!” Evidence from a Field Experiment in France. ANNALS OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS, 121-160. Retrieved Juli 24, 2002, from https://escholarship.org/content/qt7x59193n/qt7x59193n_noSplash_504131b0908ace814b5316431048cf0c.pdf

Alsaafin, L. (2022, April 3). Islamophobia on the rise as French presidential election nears. Retrieved Desember 14, 2022, from AlJazeera: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/4/3/france-election-muslims-islamophobia-macron

Ameli, S. R., Elahi, M., & Merali, A. (2004). British Muslims Expectations of the Government Social Discrimination: Across the Muslim Divide. Great Britain: Islamic Human Rights Commission. Retrieved Juli 25, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282185115_Social_Discrimination_Across_the_Muslim_Divide

Amnesty International. (2022). Discrimination. Retrieved Juni 25, 2022, from Amnesty International: https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/discrimination/

Anggraeni, Y., Citraresmana, E., & Koeshandoyo, E. W. (2021). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Negative Representation of the French President. Elsya : Journal of English Language Studies, 1-11. doi:10.31849/elsya.v4i2.7797

BBC. (2020, November 2). Protes terhadap Presiden Prancis berlanjut: Ribuan orang 'marah' atas pernyataan Macron. BBC News. Retrieved Mei 15, 2022, from https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-54721689.amp

Bucher, B. (2016). Revisiting ‘identity’ in International Relations: From identity as substance to identifications in action. European Journal of International Relations, 1-26. doi:10.1177/1354066116644035

Bukhari, S. A., Ali, T., Khan, H., & Ali, H. (2019). Islamophobia in the West and Post 9/11 Era. International Affairs and Global Strategy , 78, 23-32. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from 10.7176/IAGS/78-04

Chrisafis, A. (2022, Mei 5). Macron rebrands party as Renaissance to fight parliamentary elections. The Guardian. Retrieved Januari 11, 2023, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/may/05/macron-rebrands-party-as-renaissance-to-fight-parliamentary-elections

Chwalisz, C. (2018). En Marche: From a Movement to a. Carnegie Europe. Retrieved Januari 10, 2023, from https://carnegieeurope.eu/2018/04/06/en-marche-from-movement-to-government-pub-75985

CNN Indonesia. (2020, Oktober 30). MUI Ajak Umat Islam Indonesia Boikot Produk Prancis. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved Mei 15, 2022, from https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20201030182910-20-564265/mui-ajak-umat-islam-indonesia-boikot-produk-prancis

Dodman, B. (2020, Oktober 30). ‘Islam is being hyper-politicised in France, but Muslims are not part of the debate’. Retrieved Desember 18, 2022, from France 24: https://www.france24.com/en/france/20201030-islam-is-being-hyper-politicised-in-france-but-muslims-are-not-in-the-debate

Fox, J. (2001). Religion as an overlooked element of international relations. International Studies Review, 3(3), 53-72. Retrieved March 8, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290029850_Religion_as_an_overlooked_element_of_international_relations

Fox, N. J. (2000). Using Interviews in a Research Project. In N. Mathers, N. J. Fox, & A. Hunn, Research Approaches in Primary Care (pp. 113-134). Radcliffe Medical Press/Trent Focus. Retrieved Juni 20, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253117832_Using_Interviews_in_a_Research_Project

Francois, M. (2020, Desember 8). France's Treatment of Its Muslim Citizens Is the True Measure of Its Republican Values. Retrieved Desember 16, 2022, from TIME: https://time.com/5918657/frances-muslim-citizens-republican-values/

Huda, M. (2015). THE PROJECT OF ISLAMOPHOBIA. QIJIS: Qudus International Journal of Islamic Studies, 3(2), 192-209. Retrieved March 10, 2022, from https://journal.iainkudus.ac.id/index.php/QIJIS/article/download/1586/1455

Lamont, C. (2015). Research Methods in International Relations. Los Angeles: SAGE Publishing. Retrieved Juni 20, 2022, from https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/research-methods-in-international-relations/book242790

Loeb, S., Dynarski , S., McFarland , D., Morris, P., Reardon, S., & Reber, S. (2017). Descriptive analysis in education: A guide for researchers. Retrieved Juni 20, 2022, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED573325.pdf

Mazrieva, E., & Wardah, F. (2020, Oktober 30). Kecam Pernyataan Presiden Perancis, Indonesia Kirim Nota Diplomatik. VOA Indonesia. Retrieved Mei 15, 2022, from https://www.voaindonesia.com/amp/kecam-pernyataan-presiden-perancis-indonesia-kirim-nota-diplomatik-/5641855.html

MINISTERE DE L'EUROPE ET DES AFFAIRS ETRANGERES. (2022). Secularism and Religious Freedom. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from MINISTERE DE L'EUROPE ET DES AFFAIRS ETRANGERES: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/coming-to-france/france-facts/secularism-and-religious-freedom-in-france-63815/article/secularism-and-religious-freedom-in-france#:~:text=%22France%20is%20an%20indivisible%2C%20secular,states%20the%20Constitution%20of%201

MINISTERE DE L'EUROPERE ET DES AFFAIRES ETRANGERES. (2022). France Diplomacy. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from MINISTERE DE L'EUROPERE ET DES AFFAIRES ETRANGERES: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/coming-to-france/france-facts/symbols-of-the-republic/article/liberty-equality-fraternity

Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative Research Methodology in Social Sciences and Related Subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), 23-48. Retrieved Juni 20, 2022, from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/85654/1/MPRA_paper_85654.pdf

Pramono, S., & Purwono, A. (2010). Konstruktivisme Dalam Studi Hubungan Internasional: Gagasan dan Posisi Teoritik. Publikasi Ilmiah Unwahas. Retrieved Juni 14, 2022, from https://publikasiilmiah.unwahas.ac.id/index.php/SPEKTRUM/article/view/485

Pruitt, D. G., & Rubin, J. Z. (2009). Teori Koflik Sosial. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Ray, M. (2022, Agustus 18). Emmanuel Macron. Retrieved Desember 17, 2022, from Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emmanuel-Macron

Rizqo, K. A. (2020, November 1). Komisi Fatwa MUI: Pemboikotan Produk Prancis Bisa Jadi Wajib. detikNews. Retrieved Mei 15, 2022, from https://news.detik.com/internasional/d-5236777/komisi-fatwa-mui-pemboikotan-produk-prancis-bisa-jadi-wajib/2

Sager, F., & Rosser, C. (2015). Historical Methods. In M. Bevir, & R. Rhodes, The Routledge Handbook of Interpretive Political Science (pp. 199-210). New York: Routledge. Retrieved Juni 20, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281620532_Historical_Methods

The Brookings Doha Center. (2020, November 30). France and Islam: Identity, Politics, and Geopolitics. Retrieved Desember 27, 2022, from BROOKINGS: https://www.brookings.edu/events/france-and-islam-identity-politics-and-geopolitics/

Wendt, A. (1994). Collective Identity Formation and the International State. The American Political Science Review, 88(2), 384-396. doi:10.2307/2944711

Wendt, A. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999. Retrieved Mei 30, 2022, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/social-theory-of-international-politics/0346E6FDC74FECEF6D2CDD7EFB003CF2

Wolfreys, J. (2018). Republic of Islamophobia: The Rise of Respectable Racism in France. United States of America: Oxford University Press. Retrieved Juli 24, 2022, from https://www.pdfdrive.com/republic-of-islamophobia-the-rise-of-respectable-racism-in-france-e176333375.html

Downloads

Published

31-01-2023

How to Cite

Response of Muslims in Indonesia, particularly the Council of Indonesian Ulama (Majelis Ulama Indonesia) as well as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, to the social discrimination against Muslim communities in France. (2023). Ampera: A Research Journal on Politics and Islamic Civilization, 4(01), 35-45. https://doi.org/10.19109/ampera.v4i01.15729